Analysis of clinical gait pattern, change in spasticity and range of motion (ROM) in cerebral palsy patient (CP) with spastic lower limb muscle after injecting botulinum toxin- A.
28 children (18 male and 10 female) with spastic CP had problems in normal walking, aged 2–9 years (mean age 4.65 years), consecutively treated in the PMR department over a 2-year period, were prospectively followed-up and clinically assessed pre- and post-treatment (at 2 weeks and 2 months) both objectively and subjectively. Objective assessment included gait parameters -- stride length, cadence, velocity, step length, base of support; active and passive range of motion (ROM), (measured by goniometry) and spasticity on modified Ashworth scale. Subjective assessment was done by asking questionnaire in terms of comfort, ease of care, perineal hygiene, walking. Injections were given using clinical palpatory method on OPD basis. All patients received botulinum toxin-A injections, followed with exercises and activities and orthosis as needed.
Significant improvement was achieved for spasticity reduction in gastrocnemius (p< 0.001), hamstring and adductor (p=0.050), ankle AROM & PROM (p< 0.001), active knee extension (p=0.009), popliteal angle (p=0.015) and percentage left and right foot contact (p< 0.001), whereas non-significant change was observed in step length, cadence, velocity, stride length, and base of support. Parents felt subjective improvement in most of the cases (>90%).
Botulinum toxin- A injection is effective in the treatment of spastic lower limb muscles for equinus/ crouching/scissoring gait in cerebral palsy children. The treatment was feasible and easily implemented. Botulinum toxin- A injections were well tolerated, yielded no serious treatment-related adverse events.